Some documents contain miniscule defects that can be relied on to establish when they were printed.
Figure 2 shows the bottom of a form taken from a patient's medical file.
If a questioned document is in contact with other papers, writing impressions are often transferred from one item to another.
The information provided within this skills unit aims to identify and explain some of the most common difficulties and pitfalls and to provide sources of assistance.
The printer used a unique alphanumeric code (see arrow) in the bottom left corner to invoice companies who paid for advertising on forms sent to doctors' offices.
In this case, the form was not available until 3 years Information can be added or inserted to an entry make it appear as though it was written at an earlier time.
The ESDA is an extremely sensitive instrument capable of restoring indented writing on documents which were situated 4 or 5 sheets below the document written on.
ESDA test results can also show if a questioned entry was written before or after uncontested information on a document or in a file.